The purpose of the present paper is to analyse the most important changes that have taken place in the Kaliningrad Oblast since 2016. Part One analyses the dynamics of the political and social situation with special focus on: changes in the relations between the federal centre and the oblast; the situation within the power elite; and the development of civil society activities. Part Two is devoted to analysing the economic situation and looks in particular into social and economic indicators and the evolution of Moscow's policy towards the region, including its transport and energy projects. Part Three delves into the oblast's relations with the external world, including its cross-border contacts and co-operations, the movement of people and economic exchange. Finally, Part Four is devoted to the evolution of the internal security situation and policy, and the expansion of Russia's military potential in the region.
Moscow's policy towards the Kaliningrad Oblast has been increasingly consistent in recent years. Its main objective has been to further tighten its grip on the region and its links to mainland Russia in the political, social and economic dimension. As a result, the Kaliningrad Oblast has been made more subordinated to Moscow, which is in line with a general trend in the relations between Russia's central government and the regions.