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OSW Commentary | | Łukasz Maślanka
Over the course of his seven-year presidency, Emmanuel Macron has had complete freedom in shaping France's foreign and security policy. This autonomy is evident in France’s fluctuating stance towards Russia, from initial hopes of building…
Analyses | | Andrzej Wilk, Piotr Żochowski
Analyses | | Jacek Tarociński, Marek Menkiszak, Lidia Gibadło
On 10 July, on the sidelines of a NATO summit in Washington, the Unites States and Germany announced in a joint statement that the US will begin episodic deployments of the long-range  fires capabilities of its Multi-Domain Task Force in…
Analyses | | Ilona Gizińska
In the first days following Hungary taking over the presidency of the Council of the European Union, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán conducted a series of diplomatic visits abroad, referring to them as a ‘peace mission’, which included visits…
OSW Commentary | | Robert Pszczel, Piotr Szymański
Three themes were dominant at the NATO Summit in Washington (9–11 July): the reinforcement of allied deterrence and defence, support for Ukraine, and cooperation with the partners in the Indo-Pacific. NATO continues to adapt its command…
Analyses | | Miłosz Bartosiewicz
On 8–9 July, India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid an official visit to Russia. During the 22nd Russian-Indian summit, the two states signed a declaration on the strategic directions of economic cooperation, which included a plan to…
Analyses | | Jakub Ber, Piotr Żochowski, Jacek Tarociński
Analyses | | Kamil Frymark, Lidia Gibadło
On 5 July, the leaders of the government coalition formed by the SPD, the Greens and the FDP announced they had reached an agreement on the budget plan for 2025. It includes three elements: budget guidelines, an amendment to the law on…
Analyses | | Marcin Popławski, OSW team
From 3–4 July, the 24th summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) was held in Astana. It was attended by the leaders of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan,…
Analyses | | Marek Matusiak
Since 8 October last year, parallel to the war in Gaza, there has been an exchange of fire on the Israeli-Lebanese border between the Israeli army and Hezbollah, a pro-Iranian Shia armed group. This confrontation is a persistent feature of…