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OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

Over the last few years, Tallinn has been increasingly involved in military cooperation in the EU and with France. To date, Estonia is the only country on NATO’s eastern flank to join the French-led…

OSW Commentary | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein

The Lithuanian government has not recognised the legality of the election of Alyaksandr Lukashenka as President of the Republic of Belarus, and it now regards the opposition as their main…

OSW Commentary | | Jolanta Darczewska

The Kremlin defines the role of the Russian Federation as a superpower in the international arena in terms of the strength it can bring to bear due to its resources,…

OSW Commentary | | Andrzej Wilk

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Southern Military District (SMD), which is the smallest of all the main administrative units of the Armed Forces of the…

OSW Commentary | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Katarzyna Chawryło, Piotr Żochowski

Due to the dynamic and surprising development of events in Belarus, Russia’s previous tactic –weakening Alyaksandr Lukashenka’s position in…

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska

At the end of July, US Defence Secretary Mark Esper announced plans to withdraw approximately 12 000 US troops from Germany. Reactions in Berlin were varied. The main narrative is that of Germany being…

OSW Commentary | | Karolina Zielińska

After three rounds of early parliamentary elections in Israel, in May 2020 a grand coalition government was sworn in. The parties that make it up belong to a block of…

OSW Commentary | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Iwona Wiśniewska

The end of May 2020 saw the biggest known environmental disaster in the Russian Arctic. The thermal power plant in Norilsk in Krasnoyarsk…

OSW Studies | | Michał Bogusz

Territorial disputes occur in the South China Sea, which is a major hot spot in East Asia and to a large degree also globally. Due to its fundamental importance for global maritime transport, its natural resources and…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś

In recent years, numerous countries have adopted their national hydrogen strategies and begun to implement them. In July 2020, the European Union also adopted its…