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OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

The Polish national minority school system in Belarus was created from scratch in the 1990s with financial support from Warsaw and an…

OSW Commentary | | Iwona Wiśniewska

Since Sputnik V was registered in Russia in August 2020, a major global promotional campaign for the vaccine has been under way with the involvement of the state authorities, led by…

OSW Commentary | | Krzysztof Dębiec, Michał Kędzierski

Lignite still plays an important role in the Czech and German power industries, remaining one of their key sources of electricity. These countries, together with Poland, are the largest producers and consumers of this…

OSW Commentary | | Ryszarda Formuszewicz, Szymon Kardaś, Agata Łoskot-Strachota

Russian ships resumed laying the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas pipeline on the Baltic Sea bed in February this year. Russia’s goal is to complete the project and put it into…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Michał Kędzierski

Joint hydrogen energy projects are components of the comprehensive Russian-German energy cooperation which has been ongoing for more than five decades. Due to increasing demand for…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

International interest in Greenland has been growing for several years. This trend is a result of the increasing global competition between the US, China and Russia (…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

The rigged presidential election held in Belarus on 9 August 2020 and the brutal crackdown on the participants of post-election demonstrations triggered immediate criticism…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

In December 2020, President Vladimir Putin signed a package of laws tightening regulations on non-governmental organisations, public gatherings and media censorship. It is…

OSW Commentary | | Krzysztof Dębiec

The deal finalising the sale of Nova TV to PPF on 13 October 2020 completed the process of key Czech media organisations being taken over by local capital. At the beginning…

OSW Commentary | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Iwona Wiśniewska

In December 2020, Russia launched a mass-scale action for vaccinating its citizens with the domestically produced Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine. It was only on 2…