Putinism after Putin
The Russian model of authoritarian rule owes its durability to the ‘deep structures’ that constitute the foundation of the Russian political system and political culture. These deep structures encompass an entire complex of basic values, norms and behaviour patterns, which continue to adversely affect the functioning of state institutions and social relations. The persistence of the self-replicating deep structures, along with strong political, social and cultural barriers to democratization, will most likely foster effective resistance to any durable systemic changes in Russia after the incumbent president steps down. This way Putinism, a full-fledged contemporary form of Russian authoritarianism, is very likely to outlive the rule of Vladimir Putin.