The record volumes of gas supplied via the OPAL and Nord Stream pipeline have been accompanied by controversy over the rules for utilisation of the OPAL pipeline’s capacity.
The United National Movement, Georgia’s largest opposition party which governed the country during the presidency of Mikheil Saakashvili underwent a split on 12 January.
The dispute inside the Czech government coalition has escalated nine months ahead of the parliamentary election.
On 4 January, the Romanian Parliament gave a vote of confidence to the centre-left cabinet of Sorin Grindeanu.
The Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım held meetings with both the Iraqi government in Baghdad and the Kurdistan Regional Government in Irbil.
24 grudnia prezydent Kirgistanu Ałmazbek Atambajew złożył wizytę w Uzbekistanie.
Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka boycotted the summit of leaders of countries belonging to EaEU and CSTO, which was held in St. Petersburg on 26 December.
On 29th December Russia and Turkey announced a joint plan to introduce a ceasefire in Syria. On 31st December it received support from the UN Security Council.
In the evening on 19 December a truck drove into one of the Berlin Christmas markets.
On 15–16 December, the Russian President Vladimir Putin paid an official visit to Japan, which had originally been scheduled for 2014.