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OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

The Polish national minority school system in Belarus was created from scratch in the 1990s with financial support from Warsaw and an…

OSW Commentary | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota, Mateusz Seroka, Marta Szpala

December 2020 saw the completion of another part (Bulgaria–Serbia) of the European section of the TurkStream gas pipeline, through which gas has been exported from…

OSW Commentary | | Iwona Wiśniewska

Since Sputnik V was registered in Russia in August 2020, a major global promotional campaign for the vaccine has been under way with the involvement of the state authorities, led by…

OSW Commentary | | Krzysztof Dębiec, Michał Kędzierski

Lignite still plays an important role in the Czech and German power industries, remaining one of their key sources of electricity. These countries, together with Poland, are the largest producers and consumers of this…

OSW Commentary | | Ryszarda Formuszewicz, Szymon Kardaś, Agata Łoskot-Strachota

Russian ships resumed laying the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas pipeline on the Baltic Sea bed in February this year. Russia’s goal is to complete the project and put it into…

Point of View | | Marek Menkiszak

French President Emmanuel Macron has proclaimed the need to engage in dialogue with Russia and work with it to build an architecture of trust and security in Europe; he has…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Michał Kędzierski

Joint hydrogen energy projects are components of the comprehensive Russian-German energy cooperation which has been ongoing for more than five decades. Due to increasing demand for…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

International interest in Greenland has been growing for several years. This trend is a result of the increasing global competition between the US, China and Russia (…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

The rigged presidential election held in Belarus on 9 August 2020 and the brutal crackdown on the participants of post-election demonstrations triggered immediate criticism…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

In December 2020, President Vladimir Putin signed a package of laws tightening regulations on non-governmental organisations, public gatherings and media censorship. It is…