Point of View
The trouble with PESCO
The mirages of European defence
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The creation of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in December 2017 crowned the series of recent debates and actions aimed at strengthening the common security and defence policy of the EU. However, the compromise around PESCO has revealed strategic divergences among France, Germany and the countries on the eastern flank related to the perceptions of threats and challenges, the development of the EU’s security and defence policy, and the future of trans-Atlantic relations. The debates on PESCO in Western Europe have also highlighted a growing gap between the political narratives and military reality.