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OSW Studies | | Witold Rodkiewicz

Russia’s policy in the Middle East is part of a broader strategy aimed at creating an international order in which Russia would be protected against Western interference in its…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

On 24 August 1991, the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR proclaimed independence, and on 1 December the same year, the Ukrainian people ratified that proclamation in a referendum. The new Ukrainian state had some very important…

OSW Studies | | Rafał Bajczuk

In its time in power, which is shortly to end, the CDU/CSU-SPD coalition introduced key legislative changes enabling a further transformation of the energy sector.

 

OSW Studies | | Piotr Szymański

The Baltic states are often viewed by the West and Russia as a single region. However, the different economic and demographic potentials, strategic cultures and geographic location result in differences in their defence solutions.

OSW Studies | | Rafał Sadowski

In 2014–2016, Ukraine’s banking sector was affected by what has proven to be the most serious crisis in its modern history. Almost half of the banks went bankrupt and the losses incurred by the state and banking sector clients was in…

OSW Report | | Andrzej Sadecki, Tadeusz Iwański, Jakub Groszkowski

The Ukrainian-Russian war has prompted Bratislava, Prague and Budapest to take a new look at their eastern neighbourhood. Cooperation with Ukraine is gaining momentum, although relations with Russia are still the top priority for the…

OSW Studies | | Andrzej Wilk

The war in the Donbas shaped the Ukrainian army. It helped its soldiers gain awareness and motivation. It also forced the administration of the Ukrainian ministry of defence and the government to adapt the structure – for the first time…

OSW Studies | | Szymon Kardaś

Although in the 1990s the Russian Far East was not an important region in Russian central government’s internal policy, when Vladimir Putin assumed the presidency it was declared strategically significant.

OSW Report | | Wojciech Konończuk

The oil industry does not play a major role in the Ukrainian energy sector and has smaller economic and political significance than the gas, coal and nuclear sectors. The issues linked to the Ukrainian fuel sector are rarely given…

OSW Studies | | Szymon Kardaś

The Russian gas sector has found itself in a difficult situation. The mounting challenges and problems are primarily the consequence of the sector’s politicisation, the growing rivalry between Gazprom and the so-called independent gas…