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Point of View | | Jolanta Darczewska

Russia’s Cossacks evoke extreme opinions among observers: some see them as a marginal social phenomenon, a kind of political folklore; others as a morally and physically healthy part of the nation, a pillar of the modern paramilitary…

Point of View | | Maria Domańska

The Kremlin’s foreign policy is subordinate above all to the domestic political aims of the ruling elite.

Point of View | | Mateusz Chudziak

The Republic of Turkey has been undergoing a thorough transformation since 2002 under the rule of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). On the ideological level this transformation entered a decisive stage after the coup of 15 July…

Point of View | | Tadeusz A Olszański

The war with Russia which began in 2014 has triggered serious changes in the way history is thought about by the Ukrainian public, especially in opinion-forming circles. The liberal reflection critical about the nationalist tradition…

OSW Report | | Andrzej Sadecki, Tadeusz Iwański, Jakub Groszkowski

The Ukrainian-Russian war has prompted Bratislava, Prague and Budapest to take a new look at their eastern neighbourhood. Cooperation with Ukraine is gaining momentum, although relations with Russia are still the top priority for the…

Point of View | | Jolanta Darczewska, Piotr Żochowski

The remarks presented in this paper show the complexity and multi-dimensionality of the techniques referred to as ‘active measures’. The renaissance of this question currently observable today has called their role in causing crises…

OSW Report | | Wojciech Konończuk

The oil industry does not play a major role in the Ukrainian energy sector and has smaller economic and political significance than the gas, coal and nuclear sectors. The issues linked to the Ukrainian fuel sector are rarely given…

Point of View | | Jakub Jakóbowski

The slackening pace of important economic reforms, as well as the stimulus measures taken in response to the 2008 crisis to boost investments, have all led to a huge build-up of debt and created imbalances in the Chinese economy,…

Point of View | | Marek Menkiszak

Relations between Russia and the United States are characterised by an asymmetry against Russia, whose expectations vis-à-vis the US remain unmet. The dynamics of Russia’s policy towards the US in the last sixteen years has…

OSW Report | | Artur Ciechanowicz

Since the beginning of the civil war in Syria, around 810 individuals from Germany have travelled to the Middle East to support Islamic terror groups.