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OSW Commentary | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota, Szymon Kardaś

On 10 September, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) annulled a decision issued by the European Commission on 28 October 2016 allowing the Russian Gazprom to send greater volumes of gas through the OPAL…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

In response to the change in the security environment after 2014, militarily non-aligned Sweden and Finland are developing their defence cooperation with NATO and the USA and strengthening their bilateral defence…

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański

For quite some time, territorial defence seemed to be an obsolete need, a leftover from the Cold War era. However, Russia’s overt and covert uses of military force—against Georgia in 2008 and against Ukraine since 2014…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

In January 2018, Denmark adopted a new Defence Agreement for 2018–2023 – a cross-party strategy for the development of the Danish armed forces.

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański

Sweden, Finland and Denmark have seen a revival of the debate on the Nord Stream 2 project in recent months.

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański

Russia’s increasingly aggressive policy and its enhanced activity in the Nordic-Baltic region has led to revaluations in Sweden’s and Finland’s security policies.

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

The Baltic states have responded to the increasing Russian military potential by taking measures to strengthen their own military potential.

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska

The key factor is the Russian perception of NATO’s activities and the credibility of the Alliance’s security guarantees for the Baltic states.

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

The Baltic states have decided to adapt their Territorial Defence Forces to new threats by making a number of changes to their functioning.

OSW Commentary | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein

The Baltic states’ reaction to the threat from Russia has demonstrated that the level of cooperation between them is low.