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OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The sacralised Soviet victory over Nazism is a central element of the politics of memory, as utilised by the Russian state today. It constitutes an…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Wojciech Konończuk

A five-year contract concerning Russian gas transit via Ukraine was signed after four days of negotiations on 30 December 2019. The previous contract expired on 1 January 2020.…

Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota

The US Congress adopted the defence budget (National Defense Authorization Act, NDAA) for 2020 which envisages sanctions concerning the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas…

Analyses | | Katarzyna Chawryło, Tadeusz Iwański

On 9 December, a meeting of the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France and Germany was held in Paris under the so-called “Normandy Format” dedicated to resolving the conflict in…

Analyses | | Kamil Kłysiński, Katarzyna Chawryło, Iwona Wiśniewska

Presidents Vladimir Putin and Alyaksandr Lukashenka met on 7 December in Sochi, Russia. They spent five hours discussing issues linked to the integration of the two…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The Russian leadership views the Internet primarily as a battlefield of an information war, i.e. an alternative to military action in the context of the ongoing…

Point of View | | Marek Menkiszak

The overriding goals of Russia’s European security policy have remained unaltered: strategic control of the post-Soviet area, the existence of a security buffer zone in Central Europe and the transformation of the existing NATO-based…

OSW Report | | Maria Domańska, Szymon Kardaś, Marek Menkiszak, Jadwiga Rogoża, Andrzej Wilk, Iwona Wiśniewska, Piotr Żochowski

The purpose of the present paper is to analyse the most important changes that have taken place in the Kaliningrad Oblast since 2016. Part One analyses the dynamics of the political and social situation with special…

Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota, Szymon Kardaś, Piotr Szymański, Sławomir Matuszak

On 30 October the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) issued a permit allowing the construction of Nord Stream 2 in the Danish exclusive economic zone on the route that runs southeast from Bornholm, thereby rejecting the…

Analyses | | Krzysztof Strachota, Mariusz Marszewski

Russian president Vladimir Putin and Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan reached an agreement on 22 October regarding coordination of operations in north-eastern Syria, including the future prospects for the Turkish…