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OSW Studies | | Iwona Wiśniewska

In 2009, Vladimir Putin, the then Russian prime minister, gave impetus to the establishment of closer relations within what was then a still narrow group of three countries: Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Close co-operation is expected…

Point of View | | Rafał Sadowski

Over the four years since its launch, the Eastern Partnership initiative has created frameworks and mechanisms for the integration of EaP countries with the EU. Despite this, the partner countries have so far made little meaningful…

OSW Commentary | | Arkadiusz Sarna

In recent months Kyiv has been intensifying its efforts to diversify Ukraine’s gas supply routes with a view to reducing the country’s dependence on imports from Russia. One of the steps which Kyiv has taken has been to make the…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

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