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OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

In March 2021, the UK's government published the Integrated Review – a new vision for the country's security, defence, development and foreign policy until 2030. A few days later, it released a supplementary defence…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś

Expansion on the liquefied natural gas market has become one of the priority areas in Russia’s energy policy in recent years. This has been reflected in the statements made…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

NATO's northern flank plays an increasingly important role in the security of the Euro-Atlantic area. Russia’s forces in the Northern Military District pose not only a…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

Although the COVID-19 pandemic did trigger a recession in Belarus, the greatest blow to the country’s economy has been its deep political crisis. This was caused by the authorities rigging the results of…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

The Polish national minority school system in Belarus was created from scratch in the 1990s with financial support from Warsaw and an…

OSW Commentary | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota, Mateusz Seroka, Marta Szpala

December 2020 saw the completion of another part (Bulgaria–Serbia) of the European section of the TurkStream gas pipeline, through which gas has been exported from…

OSW Commentary | | Iwona Wiśniewska

Since Sputnik V was registered in Russia in August 2020, a major global promotional campaign for the vaccine has been under way with the involvement of the state authorities, led by…

OSW Commentary | | Krzysztof Dębiec, Michał Kędzierski

Lignite still plays an important role in the Czech and German power industries, remaining one of their key sources of electricity. These countries, together with Poland, are the largest producers and consumers of this…

OSW Commentary | | Ryszarda Formuszewicz, Szymon Kardaś, Agata Łoskot-Strachota

Russian ships resumed laying the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas pipeline on the Baltic Sea bed in February this year. Russia’s goal is to complete the project and put it into…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Michał Kędzierski

Joint hydrogen energy projects are components of the comprehensive Russian-German energy cooperation which has been ongoing for more than five decades. Due to increasing demand for…