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OSW Studies | | Kamil Kłysiński, Piotr Żochowski

The Russian narrative on Belarus changed in 2014, when Russian expert circles and the government elite essentially redefined their perception of their Belarusian ally in the context of the conflict in Ukraine and the escalation of…

OSW Studies | | Iwona Wiśniewska

In 2009, Vladimir Putin, the then Russian prime minister, gave impetus to the establishment of closer relations within what was then a still narrow group of three countries: Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Close co-operation is expected…

OSW Studies | | Wojciech Konończuk

Belarus holds a special position in Russian policy due to its geopolitical, military and transit significance. Russia's influence and position in the entire Eastern European region largely depend on how strong Russian influence in…

OSW Studies | | Rafał Sadowski

The European Union's new border with Eastern European countries, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, is approximately 3000 km long. It has vital meaning for the Union in terms of security as well as for social and economic reasons. Unlike the…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

Among all of the countries that border Ukraine, the Russian Federation is its most important partner. Ukraine·s relations with Moscow are the key issue of its foreign policy to such an extent that each option of the Ukrainian foreign…

OSW Studies | | Agata Wierzbowska-Miazga

Belarus has not broken off its bonds with Moscow after the break-up of the Soviet Union. Throughout the whole period of the Belarussian independence we can observe the country·s strong political, economic and military dependence on…