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OSW Report | | Andrzej Wilk

In the 2010s, Minsk lost the remnants of its independent defence capabilities and completely ceded the initiative to Moscow in this regard, remaining content with the appearance of sovereignty. The process of…

OSW Studies | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Kamil Kłysiński

Relations between China and Belarus have been developing…

OSW Report | | Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk

The outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in 2014 became a turning point in Belarus’s historical narrative and forced the regime to emphasise Belarusian distinctiveness from Russia…

OSW Report | | Wojciech Konończuk

As a result of the changes of borders in the 20th century, a large proportion of Poland’s cultural heritage found itself on the territory of…

OSW Studies | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein, Szymon Kardaś, Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk

When Belarus embarked on the construction of its first nuclear power plant in Astravyets in 2012, the official objective was to significantly reduce the share played by imported Russian gas in the country’s electricity production.

OSW Studies | | Kamil Kłysiński, Piotr Żochowski

The Russian narrative on Belarus changed in 2014, when Russian expert circles and the government elite essentially redefined their perception of their Belarusian ally in the context of the conflict in Ukraine and the escalation of…

OSW Studies | | Iwona Wiśniewska

In 2009, Vladimir Putin, the then Russian prime minister, gave impetus to the establishment of closer relations within what was then a still narrow group of three countries: Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Close co-operation is expected…

Point of View | | Agata Wierzbowska-Miazga

Despite the conflicts and frictions in their bilateral relations, Russia has for years regularly invested in Belarus. Moscow’s support has become an important factor allowing the Belarusian economic model to continue, which in turn…

OSW Studies | | Kamil Kłysiński, Agata Wierzbowska-Miazga

In late 2006 and early 2007, relations between Russia and Belarus were hit by the most serious crisis in many years. In a setting of heightened tension, the Belarusian authorities decided to gradually modify their economic policy and…

OSW Studies | | Wojciech Konończuk

Belarus holds a special position in Russian policy due to its geopolitical, military and transit significance. Russia's influence and position in the entire Eastern European region largely depend on how strong Russian influence in…