On 7th January the Syrian army launched an offensive against the Sunni opposition forces in the Idlib province.
The first round of the presidential elections in the Czech Republic (12-13 January) was won by the current President Miloš Zeman (with 38.6% of the vote).
Most deputies in the ruling coalition made an attempt to repeal the law creating the Specialist Chambers and Specialist Prosecutor’s Office based in the Hague.
On 5 January, the Tbilisi city court of first instance sentenced the former President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili to three years in prison.
On 5 January, Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orbán was a guest at the congress of deputies of the Christian Social Union (CSU) in Bavaria.
On 15 December, the district court in Moscow found Alexey Ulyukaev, the former Russian minister for economic development, guilty of accepting a bribe of US$2 million.
On 7th – 9th December the SPD held its convention in Berlin. Delegates reelected Martin Schulz as the party’s leader (with support at 82%).
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited Greece on 6–7 December. This was the first visit of a Turkish president to this country since 1952.
Vladimir Putin visited Cairo on 11 December. The main effect of the visit was the signing of four contracts linked to the construction of the El Dabaa nuclear power plant.
On 30th November the German president, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, met with the leaders of the CDU, CSU and SPD and urged them to form a grand coalition government.