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Analyses | | Witold Rodkiewicz

On 13 January in Moscow, Russia and Turkey made an attempt to convince the two warring sides in…

Analyses | | Marek Menkiszak, Maria Domańska, Jadwiga Rogoża

On 15 January, the Russian President Vladimir Putin gave his annual address to the Federal Assembly (the combined chambers of parliament).…

Analyses | | Mateusz Chudziak

During an extraordinary session on 2 January, Turkey’s parliament gave the government permission to send troops to Libya. In late December the UN-recognised Government of National Accord (GNA) in Tripoli sent an…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The sacralised Soviet victory over Nazism is a central element of the politics of memory, as utilised by the Russian state today. It constitutes an…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Wojciech Konończuk

A five-year contract concerning Russian gas transit via Ukraine was signed after four days of negotiations on 30 December 2019. The previous contract expired on 1 January 2020.…

Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota

The US Congress adopted the defence budget (National Defense Authorization Act, NDAA) for 2020 which envisages sanctions concerning the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas…

Analyses | | Katarzyna Chawryło Jarzyńska, Tadeusz Iwański

On 9 December, a meeting of the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France and Germany was held in Paris under the so-called “Normandy Format” dedicated to resolving the conflict in…

Analyses | | Kamil Kłysiński, Katarzyna Chawryło Jarzyńska, Iwona Wiśniewska

Presidents Vladimir Putin and Alyaksandr Lukashenka met on 7 December in Sochi, Russia. They spent five hours discussing issues linked to the integration of the two…

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska

The run-up to the celebrations of NATO’s 70th anniversary in London revealed a wide range of problems the Alliance is currently facing, starting with…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The Russian leadership views the Internet primarily as a battlefield of an information war, i.e. an alternative to military action in the context of the ongoing…