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OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański

For quite some time, territorial defence seemed to be an obsolete need, a leftover from the Cold War era. However, Russia’s overt and covert uses of military force—against Georgia in 2008 and against Ukraine since 2014…

Analyses | | Piotr Szymański

Last week speculation appeared in global media about ‘secret bases’ set up by Russian military intelligence in Finland, which were allegedly created…

Analyses | | Piotr Szymański

On 18 October, the Helsinki District Court announced its long-awaited verdict in the case of Ilja Janitskin and Johan Bäckman. The former was sentenced to 22 months’…

Analyses | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein

The parliamentary elections in Latvia (6 October) were won by the Social Democratic Party Harmony, which mainly represents an electorate of the country’s Russian-speaking…

Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota

On 5 September, the Nord Stream 2 company began laying the first pipes in the Gulf of Finland, thus marking the start of the gas pipeline’s construction. 

Analyses | | Justyna Gotkowska

The Norwegian government and parliament had granted approval for the rotational stationing of the US Marines to continue in Norway for the next five years.

OSW Studies | | Piotr Szymański

Finland sees Russia as a source of opportunities and threats. On the one hand, Russia is an important trade partner. On the other hand, Finland is concerned by the Russian vision of the international order based on great powers’ spheres…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

In January 2018, Denmark adopted a new Defence Agreement for 2018–2023 – a cross-party strategy for the development of the Danish armed forces.