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OSW Commentary | | Jolanta Darczewska

The Kremlin defines the role of the Russian Federation as a superpower in the international arena in terms of the strength it can bring to bear due to its resources,…

OSW Commentary | | Andrzej Wilk

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Southern Military District (SMD), which is the smallest of all the main administrative units of the Armed Forces of the…

OSW Commentary | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Katarzyna Chawryło, Piotr Żochowski

Due to the dynamic and surprising development of events in Belarus, Russia’s previous tactic –weakening Alyaksandr Lukashenka’s position in…

OSW Commentary | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Iwona Wiśniewska

The end of May 2020 saw the biggest known environmental disaster in the Russian Arctic. The thermal power plant in Norilsk in Krasnoyarsk…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś

In recent years, numerous countries have adopted their national hydrogen strategies and begun to implement them. In July 2020, the European Union also adopted its…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

On 10–11 March, the State Duma passed, in the second and third reading, the constitutional amendments bill, thereby concluding the next step in the constitutional reform announced by Vladimir Putin on 15 January. The…

OSW Commentary | | Witold Rodkiewicz

Russia’s relations with Iran are almost entirely based on geopolitical considerations. The Russian elite perceives Iran as an essential, albeit difficult partner, with…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The sacralised Soviet victory over Nazism is a central element of the politics of memory, as utilised by the Russian state today. It constitutes an…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Wojciech Konończuk

A five-year contract concerning Russian gas transit via Ukraine was signed after four days of negotiations on 30 December 2019. The previous contract expired on 1 January 2020.…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The Russian leadership views the Internet primarily as a battlefield of an information war, i.e. an alternative to military action in the context of the ongoing…