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The crisis has placed the EU in the role of a supplicant to Ankara, which has drawn Turkey in from the ongoing marginalisation on the international stage.
On 10th October Ankara experienced one of the largest terrorist attacks in the history of modern Turkey.
Moscow’s recent moves prove that it still has a strong influence in the Middle East – but this is above all the potential for destabilisation.
Opportunities to reduce Turkey’s Syrian refugee influx to Europe are now severely limited.