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Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota

The US Congress adopted the defence budget (National Defense Authorization Act, NDAA) for 2020 which envisages sanctions concerning the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas…

Analyses | | Katarzyna Chawryło Jarzyńska, Tadeusz Iwański

On 9 December, a meeting of the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France and Germany was held in Paris under the so-called “Normandy Format” dedicated to resolving the conflict in…

Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota

On 20 February, the Committee of Permanent Representatives of the EU Council (COREPER) endorsed a compromise version of the amendments to the gas directive which had been agreed a week earlier during the tripartite ‘…