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OSW Studies | | Szymon Kardaś

In 2018 Gazprom, Russia’s biggest state-controlled gas company, adopted the largest investment programme in its history. In 2017, the company also reported its…

OSW Studies | | Sławomir Matuszak

The Ukrainian-Russian war not only came as a shock to the Ukrainian political elite and public – it also turned out to be a kind of a shock therapy for the…

OSW Studies | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein, Szymon Kardaś, Kamil Kłysiński

When Belarus embarked on the construction of its first nuclear power plant in Astravyets in 2012, the official objective was to significantly reduce the share played by imported Russian gas in the country’s electricity production.

OSW Studies | | Piotr Szymański

Finland sees Russia as a source of opportunities and threats. On the one hand, Russia is an important trade partner. On the other hand, Finland is concerned by the Russian vision of the international order based on great powers’ spheres…

OSW Studies | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Konrad Popławski, Marcin Kaczmarski

The report discusses the current state and future prospects of rail connections between China and the countries of the European Union. Special emphasis is placed on the role of Central Europe.