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The end of the Western military presence in Central Asia will mean the West’s influence on the security sphere in the region will be marginalised.
Moscow is preparing itself for the ‘long game’ in gas with its European partners.
Moscow’s control over the regions is currently so thorough that it contradicts the formally existing federal form of government in Russia.
Since the collapse of the USSR, Russian influence in Central Asia has undergone a far-reaching erosion. The process is unlikely to be reversed.
The international development cooperation systems of the Visegrad countries are all rather new, in most cases only about a decade old.
Considering the scale of violence in the North Caucasus, the conflict in the region should be regarded as a local civil war.