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OSW Report | | Krzysztof Dębiec
The Czech Republic is an example of a state in which drought has become a key issue in public debate. In the Czech Republic, 2020 was the seventh consecutive year of a drought that is considered the most severe in 500 years, and which…
Point of View | | Anna Kwiatkowska
Angela Merkel is the first woman to climb to the top of German politics. Step by step, to the surprise of her male rivals inside the party, she took over the leadership on the political scene of Germany, and then of the European Union.…
Point of View | | Marek Matusiak
The arrival of more than one million immigrants from the former USSR back in the 1990s and post-2000 has resulted in a surge in Israel’s demographic and economic potential, sealed the domination of right-wing parties on the Israeli…
Point of View | | Marek Menkiszak
French President Emmanuel Macron has proclaimed the need to engage in dialogue with Russia and work with it to build an architecture of trust and security in Europe; he has managed to partially revive the channels of communication (…
OSW Report | | Andrzej Wilk
In the 2010s, Minsk lost the remnants of its independent defence capabilities and completely ceded the initiative to Moscow in this regard, remaining content with the appearance of sovereignty. The process of Belarusian-Russian military…
Point of View | | Justyna Gotkowska
Since 2008, Swedish security policy has drawn keen interest from the countries of the Nordic and Baltic states, NATO, as well as the US and Russia. The allied member states have hoped to see Sweden join NATO, while Russia has sought to…
OSW Studies | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Kamil Kłysiński
Relations between China and Belarus have been developing intensively over the past decade. This process has been fuelled by Beijing’s growing global ambitions as well as Minsk’s efforts to modernise the Belarusian economy and to partially…
OSW Report | | Michał Kędzierski, Rafał Bajczuk
For years, Germany has claimed to be the leader of global climate policy and has continued to raise the issue of global warming on the international forum. All over the world, Germany is associated with the transition to renewable energy…
OSW Report | | Iwona Wiśniewska
The digital transformation has become one of the Russian government’s economic priorities during Vladimir Putin’s fourth presidential term. At its core has been the development of ICT infrastructure, and especially the deployment of fifth-…
OSW Report | | Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk
The outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in 2014 became a turning point in Belarus’s historical narrative and forced the regime to emphasise Belarusian distinctiveness from Russia more than before. The activation of the politics of…