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OSW Report | | Andrzej Wilk

In the 2010s, Minsk lost the remnants of its independent defence capabilities and completely ceded the initiative to Moscow in this regard, remaining content with the appearance of sovereignty. The process of…

OSW Report | | Michał Kędzierski, Rafał Bajczuk

For years, Germany has claimed to be the leader of global climate policy and has continued to raise the issue of global warming on…

OSW Report | | Iwona Wiśniewska

The digital transformation has become one of the Russian government’s economic priorities during Vladimir Putin’s fourth presidential term. At its core has been the…

OSW Report | | Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk

The outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in 2014 became a turning point in Belarus’s historical narrative and forced the regime to emphasise Belarusian distinctiveness from Russia…

OSW Report | | Wojciech Górecki

The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh is the ‘mother’ of all post-Soviet conflicts. It is the oldest of them, it involves the largest number of actors (…

OSW Report | | Wojciech Konończuk

As a result of the changes of borders in the 20th century, a large proportion of Poland’s cultural heritage found itself on the territory of…

OSW Report | | Piotr Szymański

In recent years, the Nordic and Baltic region has witnessed a growing interest in the concept of comprehensive security, which hails from the Cold War doctrine of total defence. This…

OSW Report | | Justyna Gotkowska

Since 2016, efforts to increase cooperation in the EU’s security and defence policy have accelerated. New initiatives have been undertaken in the military, industrial and civilian dimensions under the…

OSW Report | | Maria Domańska, Szymon Kardaś, Marek Menkiszak, Jadwiga Rogoża, Andrzej Wilk, Iwona Wiśniewska, Piotr Żochowski

The purpose of the present paper is to analyse the most important changes that have taken place in the Kaliningrad Oblast since 2016. Part One analyses the dynamics of the political and social situation with special…

OSW Report | | Michał Bogusz, Jakub Jakóbowski

The fundamental feature of the Chinese political system is the primacy of…