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OSW Report | | Andrzej Wilk

In the 2010s, Minsk lost the remnants of its independent defence capabilities and completely ceded the initiative to Moscow in this regard, remaining content with the appearance of sovereignty. The process of…

OSW Studies | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Kamil Kłysiński

Relations between China and Belarus have been developing…

OSW Report | | Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk

The outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in 2014 became a turning point in Belarus’s historical narrative and forced the regime to emphasise Belarusian distinctiveness from Russia…

OSW Report | | Wojciech Konończuk

As a result of the changes of borders in the 20th century, a large proportion of Poland’s cultural heritage found itself on the territory of…

OSW Report | | Marta Jaroszewicz

The increased wave of migration from Ukraine to Poland which began in 2014 is slowly beginning to decelerate. This migration is still mainly temporary

OSW Studies | | Sławomir Matuszak

The Ukrainian-Russian war not only came as a shock to the Ukrainian political elite and public – it also turned out to be a kind of a shock therapy for the…

OSW Report | | Tadeusz Iwański, Krzysztof Nieczypor

For the first time in the history of independent Ukraine, seven months before the presidential election, it is difficult to determine not only who the most likely winner will be, but also which two candidates will make it into the…

OSW Studies | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein, Szymon Kardaś, Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk

When Belarus embarked on the construction of its first nuclear power plant in Astravyets in 2012, the official objective was to significantly reduce the share played by imported Russian gas in the country’s electricity production.

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

On 24 August 1991, the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR proclaimed independence, and on 1 December the same year, the Ukrainian people ratified that proclamation in a referendum. The new Ukrainian state had some very important…

Point of View | | Tadeusz A Olszański

The war with Russia which began in 2014 has triggered serious changes in the way history is thought about by the Ukrainian public, especially in opinion-forming circles. The liberal reflection critical about the nationalist tradition…