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OSW Studies | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Kamil Kłysiński
Relations between China and Belarus have been developing intensively over the past decade. This process has been fuelled by Beijing’s growing global ambitions as well as Minsk’s efforts to modernise the Belarusian economy and to partially…
OSW Studies | | Michał Bogusz
Territorial disputes occur in the South China Sea, which is a major hot spot in East Asia and to a large degree also globally. Due to its fundamental importance for global maritime transport, its natural resources and its strategic…
OSW Studies | | Maria Domańska
The Russian model of authoritarian rule owes its durability to the ‘deep structures’ that constitute the foundation of the Russian political system and political culture. These deep structures encompass an entire complex of basic values,…
OSW Studies | | Kamil Frymark
On the political map of Germany, the CSU presents itself as the only authentic party with a right-wing profile, treating groups further to its right as extreme and undemocratic.
OSW Studies | | Szymon Kardaś
In 2018 Gazprom, Russia’s biggest state-controlled gas company, adopted the largest investment programme in its history. In 2017, the company also reported its highest ever revenues from the sale of gas and other goods and services. At the…
OSW Studies | | Sławomir Matuszak
The Ukrainian-Russian war not only came as a shock to the Ukrainian political elite and public – it also turned out to be a kind of a shock therapy for the Ukrainian economy. Very serious and deep changes have taken place in Ukraine’s…
OSW Studies | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein, Szymon Kardaś, Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk
When Belarus embarked on the construction of its first nuclear power plant in Astravyets in 2012, the official objective was to significantly reduce the share played by imported Russian gas in the country’s electricity production.
OSW Studies | | Piotr Szymański
Finland sees Russia as a source of opportunities and threats. On the one hand, Russia is an important trade partner. On the other hand, Finland is concerned by the Russian vision of the international order based on great powers’ spheres of…
OSW Studies | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Konrad Popławski, Marcin Kaczmarski
The report discusses the current state and future prospects of rail connections between China and the countries of the European Union. Special emphasis is placed on the role of Central Europe. 
OSW Studies | | Witold Rodkiewicz
Russia’s policy in the Middle East is part of a broader strategy aimed at creating an international order in which Russia would be protected against Western interference in its internal affairs and stand on an equal footing with the United…