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OSW Studies | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Kamil Kłysiński

Relations between China and Belarus have been developing…

OSW Report | | Michał Kędzierski, Rafał Bajczuk

For years, Germany has claimed to be the leader of global climate policy and has continued to raise the issue of global warming on…

OSW Report | | Iwona Wiśniewska

The digital transformation has become one of the Russian government’s economic priorities during Vladimir Putin’s fourth presidential term. At its core has been the…

OSW Report | | Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk

The outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in 2014 became a turning point in Belarus’s historical narrative and forced the regime to emphasise Belarusian distinctiveness from Russia…

OSW Studies | | Michał Bogusz

Territorial disputes occur in the South China Sea, which is a major hot spot in East Asia and to a large degree also globally. Due to its fundamental importance for global maritime transport, its natural resources and…

OSW Report | | Wojciech Górecki

The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh is the ‘mother’ of all post-Soviet conflicts. It is the oldest of them, it involves the largest number of actors (…

OSW Report | | Wojciech Konończuk

As a result of the changes of borders in the 20th century, a large proportion of Poland’s cultural heritage found itself on the territory of…

OSW Report | | Piotr Szymański

In recent years, the Nordic and Baltic region has witnessed a growing interest in the concept of comprehensive security, which hails from the Cold War doctrine of total defence. This…

OSW Report | | Justyna Gotkowska

Since 2016, efforts to increase cooperation in the EU’s security and defence policy have accelerated. New initiatives have been undertaken in the military, industrial and civilian dimensions under the…

OSW Report | | Maria Domańska, Szymon Kardaś, Marek Menkiszak, Jadwiga Rogoża, Andrzej Wilk, Iwona Wiśniewska, Piotr Żochowski

The purpose of the present paper is to analyse the most important changes that have taken place in the Kaliningrad Oblast since 2016. Part One analyses the dynamics of the political and social situation with special…