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OSW Report | | Maria Domańska, Jadwiga Rogoża
The Kremlin's vision of the past is becoming increasingly ideologised. This applies especially to the notion of victory over Nazi Germany in 1945, which has become a kind of a founding myth of Putinism. The historical narrative is intended…
Analyses | | Michał Kędzierski, Szymon Kardaś
On 16 November, the German Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur, BNetzA) announced it was suspending the process of certifying Nord Stream 2 AG (NS2AG) as an independent transmission system operator. In its statement the regulator…
Analyses | | Maria Domańska
On 11 November, the Russian Prosecutor General's Office petitioned the Supreme Court to liquidate the Memorial organisation (full name: International Historical and Educational, Charity and Human Rights Society “Memorial”) along with its…
Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota
According to President Vladimir Putin's instructions, Gazprom began filling its European gas storage facilities on 8 November. According to information from the company, on 9 November a plan to pump gas into five facilities began…
Analyses | | Piotr Żochowski
Since the beginning of the rise in tension on the Polish-Belarusian border and the escalation of the migration crisis, Moscow has taken a position that unequivocally justifies the actions taken by Alyaksandr Lukashenka’s regime. On 1…
Analyses | | Kamil Kłysiński, Piotr Żochowski
On 4 November 2021, a meeting of the Supreme State Council of the Union State of Russia and Belarus, attended by the two countries’ presidents, prime ministers and speakers of parliaments, was held in the form of a video conference. During…
Analyses | | Szymon Kardaś
In recent weeks, Russia has contributed to the deepening crisis on the European natural gas market, mainly by taking the following steps: abandoning the filling of warehouses which Gazprom owns or rents in selected EU countries; its lack…
Analyses | | Iwona Wiśniewska
In recent days, more records for deaths caused by COVID-19 have been set in Russia. According to official figures, last week saw the highest numbers of new cases (over 36,000 on 21 October) and deaths (over 1000 people a day) since the…
Analyses | | Adam Michalski, Witold Rodkiewicz
The first meeting between the presidents of Turkey and Russia after a year and a half took place in Sochi on 29 September. The talks between Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Vladimir Putin were closed to the media and lasted almost three hours.…
Analyses | | Szymon Kardaś, Andrzej Sadecki
On 27 September, representatives of the Hungarian state-owned energy company MVM and the Russian company Gazprom Export (a subsidiary of Gazprom) signed two new, long-term gas contracts in Budapest. The Hungarian Minister of Foreign…