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OSW Commentary | | Ryszarda Formuszewicz, Szymon Kardaś, Agata Łoskot-Strachota

Russian ships resumed laying the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas pipeline on the Baltic Sea bed in February this year. Russia’s goal is to complete the project and put it into…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Michał Kędzierski

Joint hydrogen energy projects are components of the comprehensive Russian-German energy cooperation which has been ongoing for more than five decades. Due to increasing demand for…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

In December 2020, President Vladimir Putin signed a package of laws tightening regulations on non-governmental organisations, public gatherings and media censorship. It is…

OSW Commentary | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Iwona Wiśniewska

In December 2020, Russia launched a mass-scale action for vaccinating its citizens with the domestically produced Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine. It was only on 2…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś

Although the importance of global climate challenges is systematically growing, the actions which the Russian authorities have undertaken in this area to date have been very…

OSW Commentary | | Witold Rodkiewicz

Russia’s ruling elite believes that the outcome of the US presidential elections will have only a negligible impact on Washington’s policy towards Moscow, because the…

OSW Commentary | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Iwona Wiśniewska

During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, Moscow has stepped up its activities in the global ‘vaccine race’ against SARS-CoV-2. So far Russia has registered two vaccines…

OSW Commentary | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota

In recent months, the rules for gas transmission through the countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe have been changing at an ever faster rate. There has been much talk about opening…

OSW Report | | Iwona Wiśniewska

The digital transformation has become one of the Russian government’s economic priorities during Vladimir Putin’s fourth presidential term. At its core has been the…

OSW Commentary | | Jolanta Darczewska

The Kremlin defines the role of the Russian Federation as a superpower in the international arena in terms of the strength it can bring to bear due to its resources,…