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OSW Studies | | Sławomir Matuszak

The Ukrainian-Russian war not only came as a shock to the Ukrainian political elite and public – it also turned out to be a kind of a shock therapy for the…

OSW Studies | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein, Szymon Kardaś, Kamil Kłysiński, Wojciech Konończuk

When Belarus embarked on the construction of its first nuclear power plant in Astravyets in 2012, the official objective was to significantly reduce the share played by imported Russian gas in the country’s electricity production.

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

On 24 August 1991, the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR proclaimed independence, and on 1 December the same year, the Ukrainian people ratified that proclamation in a referendum. The new Ukrainian state had some very important…

Point of View | | Tadeusz A Olszański

The war with Russia which began in 2014 has triggered serious changes in the way history is thought about by the Ukrainian public, especially in opinion-forming circles. The liberal reflection critical about the nationalist tradition…

OSW Studies | | Rafał Sadowski

In 2014–2016, Ukraine’s banking sector was affected by what has proven to be the most serious crisis in its modern history. Almost half of the banks went bankrupt and the losses incurred by the state and banking sector clients was in…

OSW Studies | | Andrzej Wilk

The war in the Donbas shaped the Ukrainian army. It helped its soldiers gain awareness and motivation. It also forced the administration of the Ukrainian ministry of defence and the government to adapt the structure – for the first time…

OSW Studies | | Kamil Całus

The Republic of Moldova is an exceptional state. It was the only Soviet republic to proclaim independence, on 27 August 1991, in order to become part of another state, i.e. Romania, rather than building its own independent political…

Point of View | | Wojciech Górecki

Regardless of the transport and social problems, the vast majority of the population have remained on the peninsula adapting to the new situation.

OSW Studies | | Kamil Kłysiński, Piotr Żochowski

The Russian narrative on Belarus changed in 2014, when Russian expert circles and the government elite essentially redefined their perception of their Belarusian ally in the context of the conflict in Ukraine and the escalation of…

Point of View | | Wojciech Konończuk

More than two years after the Maidan revolution, it is fully justified to say that the oligarchic system remains a key mechanism in Ukraine’s political and economic life. The oligarchs have been able to hold on to their influence thanks…