With Russia right across the border. Finland’s security policy

Finland sees Russia as a source of opportunities and threats. On the one hand, Russia is an important trade partner. On the other hand, Finland is concerned by the Russian vision of the international order based on great powers’ spheres of influence, and by Russia’s increasing military capabilities.

OSW Studies
Piotr Szymański
The Silk Railroad

The report discusses the current state and future prospects of rail connections between China and the countries of the European Union. Special emphasis is placed on the role of Central Europe. 

OSW Studies
Jakub Jakóbowski
Konrad Popławski
Marcin Kaczmarski
Russia’s Middle Eastern policy. Regional ambitions, global objectives

Russia’s policy in the Middle East is part of a broader strategy aimed at creating an international order in which Russia would be protected against Western interference in its internal affairs and stand on an equal footing with the United States.

OSW Studies
Witold Rodkiewicz
The unfinished reform

In its time in power, which is shortly to end, the CDU/CSU-SPD coalition introduced key legislative changes enabling a further transformation of the energy sector.


OSW Studies
Rafał Bajczuk
A quarter-century of independent Ukraine. Dimensions of transformation

On 24 August 1991, the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR proclaimed independence, and on 1 December the same year, the Ukrainian people ratified that proclamation in a referendum. The new Ukrainian state had some very important assets, such as the peaceful path that led to its independence, the fact that its territory was uncontested and its civilian administration was established.

OSW Studies
Tadeusz A. Olszański
The multi-speed Baltic States

The Baltic states are often viewed by the West and Russia as a single region. However, the different economic and demographic potentials, strategic cultures and geographic location result in differences in their defence solutions.

OSW Studies
Piotr Szymański
A region with special needs

Although in the 1990s the Russian Far East was not an important region in Russian central government’s internal policy, when Vladimir Putin assumed the presidency it was declared strategically significant.

OSW Studies
Szymon Kardaś
The aftermath of the crisis

In 2014–2016, Ukraine’s banking sector was affected by what has proven to be the most serious crisis in its modern history. Almost half of the banks went bankrupt and the losses incurred by the state and banking sector clients was in excess of US$ 20 billion.

OSW Studies
Rafał Sadowski
The best army Ukraine has ever had

The war in the Donbas shaped the Ukrainian army. It helped its soldiers gain awareness and motivation. It also forced the administration of the Ukrainian ministry of defence and the government to adapt the structure – for the first time since it was formed – to the real operational needs. 

OSW Studies
Andrzej Wilk
Crisis in Russia

The present economic crisis in Russia is conditioned above all by political factors.

OSW Studies
Maria Domańska