Defenders of the besieged fortress. On the historical legitimization of Russia’s special service

The history of the special services and the ideas which organise them in the symbolic sphere are an important part of the reflection on their contemporary role and position. Over the centuries, the secret services defined Russia's relations with the outside world, shaped its domestic situation, and influenced the fate of the societies and nations that were part of the Russian and Soviet empires.

Point of View
Jolanta Darczewska
The trouble with PESCO

The creation of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in December 2017 crowned the series of recent debates and actions aimed at strengthening the common security and defence policy of the EU.

Point of View
Justyna Gotkowska
Putin’s Cossacks

Russia’s Cossacks evoke extreme opinions among observers: some see them as a marginal social phenomenon, a kind of political folklore; others as a morally and physically healthy part of the nation, a pillar of the modern paramilitary formations which defend the national and cultural borders of the Russian Federation. 

Point of View
Jolanta Darczewska
The coup as a founding myth

The Republic of Turkey has been undergoing a thorough transformation since 2002 under the rule of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). On the ideological level this transformation entered a decisive stage after the coup of 15 July 2016 which was thwarted by the government’s supporters.

Point of View
Mateusz Chudziak
Conflict-dependent Russia

The Kremlin’s foreign policy is subordinate above all to the domestic political aims of the ruling elite.

Point of View
Maria Domańska
The great decommunisation

The war with Russia which began in 2014 has triggered serious changes in the way history is thought about by the Ukrainian public, especially in opinion-forming circles. The liberal reflection critical about the nationalist tradition initiated somewhat earlier has been rejected since wartime requires heroic narratives above all.

Point of View
Tadeusz A. Olszański
Active measures. Russia’s key export

The remarks presented in this paper show the complexity and multi-dimensionality of the techniques referred to as ‘active measures’. The renaissance of this question currently observable today has called their role in causing crises into prominence.

Point of View
Jolanta Darczewska
Piotr Żochowski
The Drifting of China's Reforms

The slackening pace of important economic reforms, as well as the stimulus measures taken in response to the 2008 crisis to boost investments, have all led to a huge build-up of debt and created imbalances in the Chinese economy, including in the financial markets and the industrial sector.

Point of View
Jakub Jakóbowski
Russia’s best enemy.

Relations between Russia and the United States are characterised by an asymmetry against Russia, whose expectations vis-à

Point of View
Marek Menkiszak
The peninsula as an island

Regardless of the transport and social problems, the vast majority of the population have remained on the peninsula adapting to the new situation.

Point of View
Wojciech Górecki