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OSW Commentary | | Jakub Jakóbowski

The development of the ‘16+1’ format largely reflected China’s strategic aims defined at the beginning of the diplomatic offensive in the region.

Analyses | | Jakub Jakóbowski, Joanna Hyndle-Hussein, Marcin Kaczmarski

One of the principal aims underlying China’s development of the ‘16+1’ format is to increase its soft power in Europe.

OSW Commentary | | Marcin Kaczmarski

Regardless of the limited effectiveness of activities carried out so far, China has continued its ‘16+1’ initiative.