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OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The sacralised Soviet victory over Nazism is a central element of the politics of memory, as utilised by the Russian state today. It constitutes an…

OSW Commentary | | Szymon Kardaś, Wojciech Konończuk

A five-year contract concerning Russian gas transit via Ukraine was signed after four days of negotiations on 30 December 2019. The previous contract expired on 1 January 2020.…

Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota

The US Congress adopted the defence budget (National Defense Authorization Act, NDAA) for 2020 which envisages sanctions concerning the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas…

Analyses | | Katarzyna Chawryło Jarzyńska, Tadeusz Iwański

On 9 December, a meeting of the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France and Germany was held in Paris under the so-called “Normandy Format” dedicated to resolving the conflict in…

Analyses | | Kamil Kłysiński, Katarzyna Chawryło Jarzyńska, Iwona Wiśniewska

Presidents Vladimir Putin and Alyaksandr Lukashenka met on 7 December in Sochi, Russia. They spent five hours discussing issues linked to the integration of the two…

OSW Commentary | | Maria Domańska

The Russian leadership views the Internet primarily as a battlefield of an information war, i.e. an alternative to military action in the context of the ongoing…

Analyses | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota, Szymon Kardaś, Piotr Szymański, Sławomir Matuszak

On 30 October the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) issued a permit allowing the construction of Nord Stream 2 in the Danish exclusive economic zone on the route that runs southeast from Bornholm, thereby rejecting the…

Analyses | | Krzysztof Strachota, Mariusz Marszewski

Russian president Vladimir Putin and Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan reached an agreement on 22 October regarding coordination of operations in north-eastern Syria, including the future prospects for the Turkish…

Analyses | | Krzysztof Dębiec

The past few weeks have exposed tensions in the Czech Republic’s contacts with China and Russia, revealing a crisis of bilateral relations that has been worsening for…

Analyses | | Tadeusz Iwański, Krzysztof Nieczypor

On 1 October, the Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky announced that an agreement had been reached to implement the so-called Steinmeier formula as part of resolving the…