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OSW Commentary | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota, Szymon Kardaś

On 10 September, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) annulled a decision issued by the European Commission on 28 October 2016 allowing the Russian Gazprom to send greater volumes of gas through the OPAL…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

In response to the change in the security environment after 2014, militarily non-aligned Sweden and Finland are developing their defence cooperation with NATO and the USA and strengthening their bilateral defence…

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański

For quite some time, territorial defence seemed to be an obsolete need, a leftover from the Cold War era. However, Russia’s overt and covert uses of military force—against Georgia in 2008 and against Ukraine since 2014…

OSW Studies | | Piotr Szymański

Finland sees Russia as a source of opportunities and threats. On the one hand, Russia is an important trade partner. On the other hand, Finland is concerned by the Russian vision of the international order based on great powers’ spheres…

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

In January 2018, Denmark adopted a new Defence Agreement for 2018–2023 – a cross-party strategy for the development of the Danish armed forces.

OSW Studies | | Piotr Szymański

The Baltic states are often viewed by the West and Russia as a single region. However, the different economic and demographic potentials, strategic cultures and geographic location result in differences in their defence solutions.

OSW Studies | | Piotr Szymański, Justyna Gotkowska

Sweden and Finland’s membership in NATO would significantly improve the level of security in the Baltic Sea region in the long-term by changing the politico-military imbalance that is currently in Russia’s favour. However, it is…

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański

Sweden, Finland and Denmark have seen a revival of the debate on the Nord Stream 2 project in recent months.

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański

Russia’s increasingly aggressive policy and its enhanced activity in the Nordic-Baltic region has led to revaluations in Sweden’s and Finland’s security policies.

OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański

The Baltic states have responded to the increasing Russian military potential by taking measures to strengthen their own military potential.