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OSW Studies | | Sławomir Matuszak

The Ukrainian-Russian war not only came as a shock to the Ukrainian political elite and public – it also turned out to be a kind of a shock therapy for the…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

On 24 August 1991, the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR proclaimed independence, and on 1 December the same year, the Ukrainian people ratified that proclamation in a referendum. The new Ukrainian state had some very important…

OSW Studies | | Rafał Sadowski

In 2014–2016, Ukraine’s banking sector was affected by what has proven to be the most serious crisis in its modern history. Almost half of the banks went bankrupt and the losses incurred by the state and banking sector clients was in…

OSW Studies | | Andrzej Wilk

The war in the Donbas shaped the Ukrainian army. It helped its soldiers gain awareness and motivation. It also forced the administration of the Ukrainian ministry of defence and the government to adapt the structure – for the first time…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

Full version available only in Polish.

OSW Studies | | Sławomir Matuszak

The Ukrainian oligarchic system, which developed into its ultimate shape during Leonid Kuchma’s second presidency, turned out to be very durable. The nature of close relations between the government and the oligarchs has not undergone…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański
In  Ukraine,  alongside  Ukrainians,  there  are very many Russians and members of other nationalities of the former Soviet Union as well as a still large group of people who identify themselves as Soviets (in terms of their…
OSW Studies | | Joanna Konieczna

The Ukrainian society in the run-up to the 2004 presidential election was in a state which political science literature characterises as an almost "ideal" condition for an outbreak of social unrest. Growing expectations, both economic…

OSW Studies | | Rafał Sadowski

The European Union's new border with Eastern European countries, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, is approximately 3000 km long. It has vital meaning for the Union in terms of security as well as for social and economic reasons. Unlike the…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański

 As expected, parliamentary elections were a major success for the centrist-rightist coalition focused around former Prime Minister Viktor Yuschenko. The communists emerged significantly weaker from the vote, and the "party of power"…