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OSW Commentary | | Katarzyna Chawryło Jarzyńska

The Russian economy needs immigrants, and taking the demographic and economic trends into account, this dependence will rise exponentially in the future. It therefore follows that adopting a restrictive immigration policy and stoking…

OSW Commentary | | Arkadiusz Sarna

In recent months Kyiv has been intensifying its efforts to diversify Ukraine’s gas supply routes with a view to reducing the country’s dependence on imports from Russia. One of the steps which Kyiv has taken has been to make the…

OSW Commentary | | Andrzej Wilk

The heightened activity of the Russian Armed Forces has demonstrated that they have a relatively large number of units in different service branches which have already achieved the level of combat readiness defined at the onset of the…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Całus

The economy of breakaway Transnistria is a peculiar combination of the command-and-distribution model inherited from the USSR with elements of a free-market economy which is heavily dependent on Russian energy and financial subsidies.…

OSW Commentary | | Mychajło Honczar

Ukraine has had to wait nearly four decades for this opportunity to regain its status of a major gas producer. Gas from unconventional sources may lead not only to Ukraine becoming self-sufficient in terms of energy supplies, but may…

OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska

From German point of view, air and missile defence systems are of little relevance for the protection of Germany’s territory. However, they are seen as important for conducting ‘out of area’ operations, providing military assistance to…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

The macroeconomic results achieved by Belarus in 2012 laid bare the weakness and the inefficiency of its economy. Belarus’s GDP and positive trade balance were growing in the first half of last year. However, this trend was reversed…

OSW Commentary | | Tadeusz Iwański, Piotr Żochowski

President Viktor Yanukovych and his Party of Regions have been repeating the pledge to decentralise power in Ukraine and to give local government a greater decision-making role ever since the party appeared on the Ukrainian political…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Całus

After coming to power in September 2009, the Alliance for European Integration (AIE)[1] coalition began implementing a wide-ranging programme of reforms, with a view to…

OSW Commentary | | Kamil Kłysiński

For years now Belarus has been a key economic partner for Lithuania and Latvia. These two Baltic states have well-developed port infrastructure and thus provide what are the geographically closest and also the cheapest exit to…