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OSW Studies | | Krzysztof Strachota, Aleksandra Jarosiewicz

The collapse of the USSR brought about conditions conducive to the dynamic development of relations between Central Asia and China. These relations have evolved from deep mistrust to the continually growing Chinese presence primarily in…

OSW Studies | | Iwona Wiśniewska

In 2009, Vladimir Putin, the then Russian prime minister, gave impetus to the establishment of closer relations within what was then a still narrow group of three countries: Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Close co-operation is expected…