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OSW Studies | | Sławomir Matuszak

The Ukrainian oligarchic system, which developed into its ultimate shape during Leonid Kuchma’s second presidency, turned out to be very durable. The nature of close relations between the government and the oligarchs has not undergone…

OSW Studies | | Jadwiga Rogoża, Agata Wierzbowska-Miazga, Iwona Wiśniewska

The Kaliningrad region can be called a 'captive island', because of its specific geopolitical location - it is part of the Russian legal, political and economic space, yet it is geographically separated from the rest of the Russian…

OSW Studies | | Tadeusz A Olszański
In  Ukraine,  alongside  Ukrainians,  there  are very many Russians and members of other nationalities of the former Soviet Union as well as a still large group of people who identify themselves as Soviets (in terms of their…
OSW Studies | | Wojciech Konończuk
Oil is a strategic raw material for Russia and one of fundamental significance for the functioning of the state and its future. Taxes on oil production and exports are the most important source of state budget revenues which guarantee…