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OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański
NATO's northern flank plays an increasingly important role in the security of the Euro-Atlantic area. Russia’s forces in the Northern Military District pose not only a conventional threat to Norway, but also a nuclear threat to the whole…
OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański
International interest in Greenland has been growing for several years. This trend is a result of the increasing global competition between the US, China and Russia (including in the Arctic) and the acceleration of climate change, which is…
OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański
Over the last few years, Tallinn has been increasingly involved in military cooperation in the EU and with France. To date, Estonia is the only country on NATO’s eastern flank to join the French-led European Intervention Initiative. The…
OSW Commentary | | Joanna Hyndle-Hussein
The Lithuanian government has not recognised the legality of the election of Alyaksandr Lukashenka as President of the Republic of Belarus, and it now regards the opposition as their main partner. Lithuania has taken on the role of…
OSW Commentary | | Agata Łoskot-Strachota, Szymon Kardaś
On 10 September, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) annulled a decision issued by the European Commission on 28 October 2016 allowing the Russian Gazprom to send greater volumes of gas through the OPAL pipeline. The CJEU…
OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański
In response to the change in the security environment after 2014, militarily non-aligned Sweden and Finland are developing their defence cooperation with NATO and the USA and strengthening their bilateral defence relationship. Although a…
OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański
For quite some time, territorial defence seemed to be an obsolete need, a leftover from the Cold War era. However, Russia’s overt and covert uses of military force—against Georgia in 2008 and against Ukraine since 2014—have profoundly…
OSW Commentary | | Piotr Szymański
In January 2018, Denmark adopted a new Defence Agreement for 2018–2023 – a cross-party strategy for the development of the Danish armed forces.
OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański
Sweden, Finland and Denmark have seen a revival of the debate on the Nord Stream 2 project in recent months.
OSW Commentary | | Justyna Gotkowska, Piotr Szymański
Russia’s increasingly aggressive policy and its enhanced activity in the Nordic-Baltic region has led to revaluations in Sweden’s and Finland’s security policies.