For the first time in its independent history, Ukraine did not buy any gas directly from Russia, thus reducing its imports by about 32%.
The record volumes of gas supplied via the OPAL and Nord Stream pipeline have been accompanied by controversy over the rules for utilisation of the OPAL pipeline’s capacity.
During President Vladimir Putin’s meeting with Igor Sechin a public announcement was made about the privatisation of a 19.5% stake in Rosneft.
The European Commission published its winter package – a series of legislative proposals regarding the EU energy and climate policies for 2020-2030.
On 30 November in Vienna, the OPEC countries concluded an agreement on reducing oil production by about 1.2 million b/d (barrels per day).
The European Commission’s decision has removed one of the barriers on the way to the implementation of the Hungarian-Russian project.
European Commission announced its decision setting out the rules for increased utilisation by the Russian gas company Gazprom of the OPAL pipeline.
Sweden, Finland and Denmark have seen a revival of the debate on the Nord Stream 2 project in recent months.
Russia and Belarus had been unable to reach an agreement concerning co-operation in the oil sector. On 10 October a compromise was reached.
The visit of the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, to Turkey on 10 October signals a return to the instrumental partnership.