Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited Greece on 6–7 December. This was the first visit of a Turkish president to this country since 1952.
Vladimir Putin visited Cairo on 11 December. The main effect of the visit was the signing of four contracts linked to the construction of the El Dabaa nuclear power plant.
In its time in power, which is shortly to end, the CDU/CSU-SPD coalition introduced key legislative changes enabling a further transformation of the energy sector.
Much seems to indicate that the Ulyukaev case is an element of the rivalry of opposing groups of interest inside the Russian ruling elite.
On 30th November the German president, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, met with the leaders of the CDU, CSU and SPD and urged them to form a grand coalition government.
On 30th November the Danish parliament amended the law on the continental shelf in the section which concerns consent to lay pipelines and cables in Danish territorial sea.
On 5 December in Kiev an attempt was made by the security service of Ukraine to detain Mikheil Saakashvili.
On 28 November, President Vladimir Putin announced the implementation of a programme for assistance to families.
The Czech president Miloš Zeman had voiced the support of the Czech Republic for the construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline.
Armenia and the EU signed a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) during the Eastern Partnership summit in Brussels.