On 20 January, Turkey launched Operation Olive Branch, aimed at the Afrin region in northern Syria.
On 7th January the Syrian army launched an offensive against the Sunni opposition forces in the Idlib province.
The Republic of Turkey has been undergoing a thorough transformation since 2002 under the rule of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). On the ideological level this transformation entered a decisive stage after the coup of 15 July 2016 which was thwarted by the government’s supporters.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited Greece on 6–7 December. This was the first visit of a Turkish president to this country since 1952.
On 22 November the presidents of Russia, Turkey and Iran, Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Hasan Rouhani, met in Sochi.
An independence referendum took place in Iraqi Kurdistan (KRG) on 25 September. It met with unprecedentedly tough criticism from Turkey.
US president Donald Trump and his Turkish counterpart, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, met for the first time on 16 May in Washington.
The citizens of Turkey voted in a national referendum to amend the constitution. This will lead to a radical strengthening of the president’s power.
The three million-strong Turkish diaspora in Germany, of whom nearly a half have the right to vote, makes bilateral relations between the two countries important.
On 11 March, the Dutch government deported the Turkish Minister for Family and Social Affairs from the Netherlands and declared her persona non grata.