On 22 November the presidents of Russia, Turkey and Iran, Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Hasan Rouhani, met in Sochi.
Representatives of Russia, Iran and Turkey signed in Astana a memorandum to establish ‘de-escalation zones’ in four areas in Syria still controlled by the Sunni opposition.
Russian Federation vetoed a draft resolution concerning the investigation into the chemical attack which took place in Khan Sheikhoun.
On 19th September President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced the end of the first stage of the Turkish intervention in Syria and the beginning of another one.
On 9 September in Geneva, the Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov and the US Secretary of State John Kerry signed a packag
Turkey is regaining its ability to act in Syria, although it is proceeding as the weaker partner, one which is dependent on Russia.
The withdrawal of Russian forces from Syria is only partial and is essentially a political operation.
Russia has gained the United States’ formal recognition of its role as a co-decision maker in resolving the Syrian question.
The conflict between the regime forces and the anti-Assad opposition appears to be entering the decisive military phase.
Germany is ever more engaged politically in the Middle East and wants to be viewed as a neutral mediator between the competing actors in the region.