On the night of 13 to 14 April, armed forces from the United States, the United Kingdom and France bombed three sites in Syria.
At night between 7 and 8 February, US forces carried out airstrikes on columns of pro-Assad troops, including a group of Russian soldiers from the so-called Wagner Group.
Russia’s policy in the Middle East is part of a broader strategy aimed at creating an international order in which Russia would be protected against Western interference in its internal affairs and stand on an equal footing with the United States.
On 20 January, Turkey launched Operation Olive Branch, aimed at the Afrin region in northern Syria.
On 7th January the Syrian army launched an offensive against the Sunni opposition forces in the Idlib province.
On 22 November the presidents of Russia, Turkey and Iran, Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Hasan Rouhani, met in Sochi.
Representatives of Russia, Iran and Turkey signed in Astana a memorandum to establish ‘de-escalation zones’ in four areas in Syria still controlled by the Sunni opposition.
Russian Federation vetoed a draft resolution concerning the investigation into the chemical attack which took place in Khan Sheikhoun.
On 19th September President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced the end of the first stage of the Turkish intervention in Syria and the beginning of another one.
On 9 September in Geneva, the Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov and the US Secretary of State John Kerry signed a packag